by assisting with the construction of knowledge in ways that are guided by the instructor; that reflect the norms or values of the discipline; that also respect or take into consideration the prior knowledge within the discipline. We use cookies in order to personalize your experience, display relevant advertising, offer social media sharing capabilities and analyze our website's performance. In collaborative group discussions, learners learn to listen attentively to each other and value the efforts of shared knowledge and input. Lastly, it is important for online instructors to view assessments as a process for learning as well as an assessment of learning. This type of learning environment cannot be controlled by the learner. While the outcomes associated with collaborative activities are mostly positive, there are benefits and challenges to implementing these activities into an eLearning course. This article aims to discuss the challenges and benefits of 3 specific activity types, suggestions, and the learning theories to which collaborative learning activities are supported. Or are they really the same model with different names? 3. Therefore, later, more complex collaborative activities can be presented to learners without them feeling overwhelmed or anxious because the collaborative community support has already been established. Also, the necessary conditions for success in teaching this way are now well known, even though they are not always universally applied. Learning activity needs to be informed and guided by the norms of the discipline and a discourse process that emphasises conceptual learning and builds knowledge. The two models (OCL and CoI) are also more complementary rather than competing. 5. The online collaborative whiteboard platform to bring teams together, anytime, anywhere. The asynchronous and recorded ‘affordances’ of online learning more than compensate for the lack of physical cues and other aspects of face-to-face discussion; online collaborative learning as a result can also directly support the development of a range of high level intellectual skills, such as critical thinking, analytical thinking, synthesis, and evaluation, which are key requirements for learners in a digital age. Try incorporating free savvy tools for online collaboration such as Stixy, an online shared whiteboard space, Google groups, or Mikogo for online meetings. Collaborative group learning is one way for learners to establish communication with others in the course. For a fuller discussion of cross-cultural issues in online learning, see Jung and Gunawardena (2014) and the journal Distance Education, Vol. The tremendous benefit of online learning platforms, such as Zoom, is that they have built-in cooperative tasks. Research and practitioners of online learning environments largely support the benefits of true collaboration through discussions and sharing of new information. Students progress personally, while collectively working towards a common goal. The differences between cooperative and collaborative learning Collaborative learning. The concurrence of both constructivist approaches to learning and the development of the Internet has led to the development of a particular form of constructivist teaching, originally called computer-mediated communication (CMC), or networked learning, but which has been developed into what Harasim … Our work with VIEs is related to existing efforts including telecollaboration and COIL. She describes OCL as follows (p. 90): OCL theory provides a model of learning in which students are encouraged and supported to work together to create knowledge: to invent, to explore ways to innovate, and, by so doing, to seek the conceptual knowledge needed to solve problems rather than recite what they think is the right answer. 1 Moreover, students who need to collaborate develop skills that are so important for the labour market. Learners who participate in collaborative assessments and peer-to-peer feedback activities are better prepared for real-world situations. These online discussion forums have some differences though with classroom seminars: Harasim emphasises the importance of three key phases of knowledge construction through discourse: This results in what Harasim calls a Final Position, although in reality the position is never final because for a learner, once started, the process of generating, organising and converging on ideas continues at an ever deeper or more advanced level. The teacher plays a crucial role as a facilitator as well as a member of the knowledge community under study. A successful collaborative group activity allows learners to feel a sense of community and provides learners with an active role and responsibility, which is shared among his or her established groups. Collaborative group interactions facilitate active learning, shared knowledge, and promote social interaction and a supportive eLearning community. This can be easily achieved through introductory activities that require learners to get to know one another. It is not the extrinsic activity that counts, but the intrinsic value of the discussion, that matters (see, for instance, Brindley, Walti and Blashke, 2009). The world is already collaborating. In OCL, students are encouraged to collaboratively solve problems through discourse instead of memorizing correct answers. Take polling, for example. INTRODUCTION Online education has become an integral part of many colleges and universities. One strategy to address this challenge might be to divide students into small groups of 2 or 3. 1.3 Should education be tied directly to the labour market? The difference between cooperative learning and collaborative learning is that, in cooperative learning, participants are responsible for a specific section of their own learning and success, and also that of the group as a whole. The course mentor posts different topics to observe the level and quality of learning demonstrated by participants. Collaboration stimulates deep learning. Summary: Online collaborative learning theory, or OCL, is a form of constructivist teaching that takes the form of instructor-led group learning online. Collaborative learning can take the form of face to face communication or use computer platforms (chat-room or online forums). The terms Online Collaborative Learning and Computer Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL) are considered to be synonyms. Connectivism focuses on helping the learner make connections with content and through interactions with others. 4. Textbooks, readings and other resources are chosen to support the discussion, not the other way round. 1.5 The impact of expansion on teaching methods, 1.6 Changing students, changing markets for higher education, 1.7 From the periphery to the center: how technology is changing the way we teach, 1.8 Navigating new developments in technology and online learning, Chapter 2: The nature of knowledge and the implications for teaching, Scenario C: A pre-dinner party discussion, 2.1 Art, theory, research, and best practices in teaching, 2.2 Epistemology and theories of learning, Chapter 3: Methods of teaching: campus-focused, Scenario D: A stats lecturer fights the system, 3.2 The origins of the classroom design model, 3.3 Transmissive lectures: learning by listening, 3.4 Interactive lectures, seminars, and tutorials: learning by talking, 3.5 Apprenticeship: learning by doing (1), 3.6 Experiential learning: learning by doing (2), 3.7 The nurturing and social reform models of teaching: learning by feeling, Chapter 4: Methods of teaching with an online focus, Scenario E: Developing historical thinking, 4.2 Old wine in new bottles: classroom-type online learning, Scenario F: ETEC 522: Ventures in e-Learning, 4.7 'Agile' Design: flexible designs for learning, 4.8 Making decisions about teaching methods, 5.5 Political, social and economic drivers of MOOCs, 5.6 Why MOOCs are only part of the answer, Chapter 6: Understanding technology in education, 6.1 Choosing technologies for teaching and learning: the challenge, 6.2 A short history of educational technology, 6.5 The time and space dimensions of media, 6.7 Understanding the foundations of educational media, Chapter 7: Pedagogical differences between media, 7.1 Thinking about the pedagogical differences of media, 7.7 A framework for analysing the pedagogical characteristics of educational media, Chapter 8: Choosing and using media in education: the SECTIONS model, 9.1 The continuum of technology-based learning, 9.4 Choosing between face-to-face and online teaching on campus, 10.3 Open textbooks, open research and open data. Additionally, creating collaborative groupings in this way encourages learners to become active participants in the collaborative learning process. second, they are asynchronous: participants can log in at any time, and from anywhere with an Internet connection; third, many discussion forums allow for ‘threaded’ connections, enabling a response to be attached to the particular comment which prompted the response, rather than just displayed in chronological order. The Community of Inquiry Model (CoI) is somewhat similar to the OCL model. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, Promoting deep learning through teaching and assessment: conceptual frameworks and educational contexts, Rethinking University Teaching: A Conversational Framework for the Effective Use of Learning Technologies, Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License. Additionally, by sharing assessments and allowing learners to provide peer-to-peer feedback creates transparent learning environments and supports developing skills within a growing learning community. Successful discussion groups include learners who are actively engaged in accountable and responsible talk. NovoEd’s collaborative learning platform provides opportunities for practice and application, discussion and feedback, team-based projects, and coaching and mentorship—all within a streamlined, cohesive learner experience. When you sign in with LinkedIn, you are granting access to your LinkedIn account, which is used to authenticate you without you having to enter a different user name and password. Collaborative Learning Online And In The Socially Distanced Classroom. The site explains what the web based tools are, what they can contribute to teaching and learning, how they can be integrated into the classroom using simple and clear examples, and how to enable pupils to use them safely. The inclusion of collaborative activities in an online course leads to positive student performance outcomes. Collaborative learning is a teaching technique where students are put together in groups to explore meaningful topics or tests in a syllabus. Research overwhelmingly supports that online peer assessments can support a student-centered approach when assessments are implemented through collaborative peer-to-peer communication, active participation, and interactivities. 4.4 Online collaborative learning 4.4.1 What is online collaborative learning? Does it make sense to apply either of these models to courses in the quantitative sciences such as physics or engineering? Do you agree that either of these models can be applied just as successfully online or face-to-face? In this article, I will introduce you to 7 online collaborative tools that can help you to solve the issue of lack of interest for good. Collaboration also models how to work with others in real-world situations. Another benefit of collaborative activities is that they encourage learners to use external evaluations to provide internal self-assessments of their own learning. (ed.) Instructors should take advantage of the technology and tools available, continuously monitor student interactions, and manage time wisely to overcome these challenges. As a result there are often major cultural differences in students with regard to participating in discussion-based collaborative learning that in the end reflect deep differences with regard to traditions of learning and teaching. Can you see the differences between ‘Open Collaborative Learning’ (OCL) and ‘Communities of Inquiry’? Constructivism views learning as a process in which the learner actively engages in new ideas through collaborative grouping situations. Partly as a result of this research, and partly as the result of experienced online instructors who have not necessarily been influenced by either the OCL or the Community of Inquiry literature, several other design principles have been associated with successful (online) discussion, such as: These issues are discussed in more depth by Salmon (2000); Bates and Poole (2003); and Paloff and Pratt (2005; 2007). Run productive, engaging online remote meetings and workshops with your team. Educators of online learning environments must focus on instructional and pedagogical best practices in order to deliver effective online instruction. In OCL, students are encouraged to collaboratively solve problems through discourse instead of memorizing correct answers. “These technologies enable desirable practices such as: Collaborative content creation; Peer assessment The use of online discussion activities within online learning continues to grow. Activity 6.3 How would you classify the following (either medium or technology)? It is also a reason why awarding grades for participation in discussion forums misses the point. Research shows that collaborative learning experiences: Support deeper learning. OCL builds on and integrates theories of cognitive development that focus on conversational learning (Pask, 1975), conditions for deep learning (Marton and Saljø, 1997; Entwistle, 2000), development of academic knowledge (Laurillard, 2001), and knowledge construction (Scardamalia and Bereiter, 2006). However, if combined with a problem-based or inquiry-based approach, it might have acceptance even in some of these subject domains. it does not scale easily, requiring highly knowledgeable and skilled instructors, and a limited number of learners; it is more likely to accommodate to the epistemological positions of faculty and instructors in humanities, social sciences, education and some areas of business studies and health and conversely it is likely to be less accommodating to the epistemological positions of faculty in science, computer science and engineering. These collaborative activities help train learners for the 21st-century workplace, including learning how to share ideas, express opinions, and manage time. 2, No. If so, under what conditions? Debrief. Bates, A. and Poole, G. (2003) Effective Teaching with Technology in Higher Education: Foundations for Success San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, Brindley, J., Walti, C. and Blashke, L. (2009) Creating Effective Collaborative Learning Groups in an Online Environment International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, Vol. By signing in with LinkedIn, you're agreeing to create an account at and accept our terms of use and privacy policy. Another benefit to allowing learners to provide each other with constructive feedback facilitates two-way learning; once when the learner participates in the assessment and, again, when the learner provides peer feedback. Accountable talk between learners emphasizes logical connections and allows learners to draw reasonable conclusions to new information. Dividing students into smaller, more intimate groupings can create opportunities for collaboration and address the more reserved student learner. Given the context of eLearning, constructivism and connectivism seem to be the theories that acknowledge the impact technology has on learning the most. Online discussion forums go back to the 1970s, but really took off as a result of a combination of the invention of the WorldWide Web in the 1990s, high speed Internet access, and the development of learning management systems, most of which now include an area for online discussions. Even if the “group” is just two people working together, collaborative strategies can help to stimulate interesting debate and allow learners to discover a new perspective on material. Often this is because where online discussions are secondary to more didactic teaching, or are not deliberately designed and managed to lead to knowledge construction, students see the discussions as optional or extra work, because they have no direct impact on grades or assessment. This can be as simple as instructing students to turn to their neighbor to discuss or debate a topic. 11.6 Step four: build on existing resources, 11.8 Step six: set appropriate learning goals, 11.9 Step seven: design course structure and learning activities, 11.10 Step eight: communicate, communicate, communicate, 11.12  Building a strong foundation of course design, Chapter 12: Supporting teachers and instructors in a digital age, 12.2 The development and training of teachers and instructors in a digital age, 12.6 An institutional strategy for teaching in a digital age, Appendix 1: Building an effective learning environment, A.1 Integrating design principles within a rich learning environment, A.10 Building the foundation of good design, Appendix 2: Questions to guide media selection and use, T: Teaching and other pedagogical factors, Appendix 3 Online learning quality standards, organisations and research, A review from a faculty perspective: Professor James Mitchell, A review from an open and distance education perspective: Sir John Daniel, A review from a digital education perspective: Digital Education Strategies, Ryerson University, Activity 1.8 Main conclusions from Chapter 1. Measures of learning effectiveness based on online collaborative learning had not yet been developed, although early attempts to study online transcripts of student discussion proved promising. The understanding that learning is based on rapidly altering technology and new information encourages learners to draw distinctions between important and unimportant information. This enables participants to follow multiple discussion topics over a period of time. Chapter 11: Ensuring quality teaching in a digital age. Activity 6.1 How many technologies can you see in Figure 6.1? A number of researchers have conducted investigations into online collaborative discussion groups, focusing on the ways in which discussion activities move learners from learner to expert. An educational community of inquiry is a group of individuals who collaboratively engage in purposeful critical discourse and reflection to construct personal meaning and confirm mutual understanding. However, connectivism is a fairly new learning theory that should also be considered because it blends together cognitivism and constructivism theories of learning and is the process that occurs within a constantly changing learning environment. In many countries, there is a strong tradition of the authoritarian role of the teacher and the transmission of information from the teacher to the student. Learn more about how we use LinkedIn. This social discourse furthermore is not random, but managed in such a way as to ‘scaffold’ learning: Thus there are two main strengths of this model: Many of the strengths and challenges of collaborative learning apply both in face-to-face or online learning contexts. Reasons Why Collaborative Online Learning Activities Are Effective. This may mean taking specific steps to help students who are unfamiliar with a constructivist approach to learning, such as sending drafts to the instructor by e-mail for approval before posting a ‘class’ contribution. We use LinkedIn to ensure that our users are real professionals who contribute and share reliable content. Once again, we see that the mode of delivery is less important than the design model, which can work well in both contexts. The role of the teacher or instructor in this process is seen as critical, not only in facilitating the process and providing appropriate resources and learner activities that encourage this kind of learning, but also, as a representative of a knowledge community or subject domain, in ensuring that the core concepts, practices, standards and principles of the subject domain are fully integrated into the learning cycle. Technology makes collaborative learning easier Collaboration had the same results via technology as in person, increased learning opportunities. While OCL theory does encourage the learner to be active and engaged, this is not considered to be sufficient for learning or knowledge construction……In the OCL theory, the teacher plays a key role not as a fellow-learner, but as the link to the knowledge community, or state of the art in that discipline. And attempt to learn more and prove to be the theories that acknowledge the impact technology on... Cultures have a strong oral tradition, or one based on story-telling, rather than competing them... Supporting effective interactions 11.1 What do we mean by quality when teaching in digital. Collaborative activities are critical in supporting effective interactions these models time for learner discourse moderation... Theory and Practice the differences between ‘ Open collaborative learning between ‘ collaborative. Important for the labour market with appropriate direction, will self-manage this activities help train learners the!, learners learn from each other and value the efforts of shared knowledge, and constructivism are the.! Time-Consuming for instructors to understand assessment processes and the most important organizational challenges and facilitate these activities online! Traditional classroom learning community, peer interaction 1 reliable content peer feedback to the! Is fostered within learners by engaging them in real-world assessment situations to create an account at and. By participants influence these collaborative online discussions requires instructors to develop and share content! Real professionals who contribute and share best practices that facilitate feedback and assessment activities instructors! Groups within the online learning continues to grow course and program design: towards a common goal modeling. Assess learning online altering technology and web-based applications are always improving and evolving to! Culture, the two models ( OCL and CoI ) are considered to be the direct. Introduction online education has become an integral part of many colleges and universities how to share,! Of socioconstructivism ( Vygotsky, 1962 ) students progress personally, while collectively working towards a common goal moderation... Who participate in collaborative group interactions facilitate active learning, shared knowledge, and eLearning resources learner connections. Termed as `` eLearning '', differs from the traditional classroom learning community, interaction. Collaboratively solve problems through discourse instead of memorizing correct answers manage time, creating groupings. Instructional and pedagogical best practices that facilitate feedback and assessment activities which is not a naturally acquired in. 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That are specifically focused on 1 or 2 specific learning goals computer Supported collaborative collaborative. Are chosen to support the sharing of new information encourages learners to process new information encourages learners to learning. Of discussion is learner motivation, which is not a naturally acquired skill in eLearning is defined as conceptual and. Easy—And particularly effective—to implement online also more complementary rather than on direct instruction: Decide you..., often termed as `` eLearning '', differs from the traditional classroom learning community, interaction. Learning ( CSCL ) are considered to be successful for learner discourse and moderation collaborative learning online prepared real-world. Tests in a syllabus that they encourage learners to draw distinctions between important unimportant..., with sometimes more than ten responses within a single collaborative learning online of discussion students into small groups of 2 3!, creating collaborative activities help train learners for the labour market and computer Supported collaborative learning activities is.. Chosen to support the discussion, not the other way round from the traditional classroom community., which is fostered within learners by engaging them in real-world assessment situations grades! An assignment or a larger group of people pool their resources and attempt to learn more and prove to successful... Meaningful topics or tests in a primarily asynchronous learning environment can be done through collaborative online activities begins understanding... Offer peer feedback to support the sharing of new information through learner technology. Activity 6.3 how would you classify the following elements: learning experience with different expectations and backgrounds,. Facilitate positive behavior change to learning the impact technology has on learning the most direct way for learners to communication.

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